This is one of the common issues to come up during my individual and group coaching sessions. Being able to challenge a colleague in a constructive way, one where the other person doesn’t feel attacked yet they understand the issue, is crucial for a productive and happy work environment.
Yet, it’s often something that is avoided. And when this is the case, it can lead to conflict in the workplace. Whenever I’ve been asked to intervene when two individuals, or a whole team, is in conflict when I dig down to the root-cause it’s because an important, difficult conversation hasn’t happened or has happened in a clumsy way.
Feedback is a key factor in building a high-trust environment, as evidenced in a study by Ana Maria Costa and colleagues. In a review of 125 studies, the researchers found trust is fed at three levels. They found good relationships with each other and the team leader, tasks where people needed to work together helped build trust and a climate where people could give open and honest feedback safely contributed to better levels of performance and higher job satisfaction.
Here are eight things you can do to help a challenging conversation go well:
- Feed-forward rather than feed-back. Rather than rake over the past, it might be more productive to focus the discussion on the future performance or behaviour you’d like to see. Art Petty wrote a great piece about this, talking about how the combination of wanting to be liked and wanting to avoid pain are just two reasons why we hate difficult conversations.
- Be your most compassionate self. This doesn’t mean you’re going to be a soft-touch. As Shakira Joyner said in a post about compassionate leadership, “Enabling people to achieve their goals and getting them where they want to be will sometimes involve difficult conversations”. And as Monica Worline and Jane Dutton state in their book, Awakening Compassion in Organizations, “…organizational messages maintaining a positive default assumption about people at work – that they are generally good, capable, and worthy of compassion – make these difficult dialogues about errors or unfortunate events easier”.
- Put yourself in the other person’s shoes and be respectful. In a study of over 100 employees and 22 supervisors in an American hospital, leaders who displayed empathic concern were more likely to have staff who help each other and put extra effort in to their work but only when there was little difference in relationships between the leader and each team member. In other words, those leaders who treated people broadly the same (whilst respecting them as individuals) tended to have better levels of team co-operation and individual effort.
- Ask yourself if you’ve being reasonable in your expectations. Maladaptive Perfectionism developed by Jennifer Grzegorek and colleagues is where a person has extremely high standards and are always beating themselves or others up for any perceived imperfection. This can cause high anxiety over mistakes and can be a reason for micromanagement. Before you have the conversation with the person, ask yourself if you are being reasonable in your expectations.
- Make it about the issue not the person. Fundamental Attribution Error, developed by Lee Ross, Teresa Amabile and Julia Steinmetz is the tendency to attribute others’ weaknesses to character rather than circumstances. When the recipient of the feedback feels it’s personal then don’t be surprised if they react defensively.
- Be clear about and stick to the purpose of the discussion. Avoid the s**t sandwich. It causes confusion. Jennifer Miller talks about the importance of separating praise from feedback. And as Kate Russell, an HR expert, says in a recent piece on grievances in People Management magazine, “It’s about standards and how you communicate them. It’s not enough to say ‘you’ve not met the standard’ – you need to spell it out. If this went to tribunal, you’d need to show that the employee knew what they should have been achieving, and that you were clear about what that was.”
- Lead by example by showing how to receive constructive challenge and feedback. In a study on humble leadership, Susan J Ashford and colleagues looked at 465 top leadership teams across 65 small and medium Belgian and American companies. The researchers found that when CEOs proactively asked their top team for feedback it had a direct and positive impact on company performance. This was dependent on how confident the overall leadership team was. Visionary (heroic) leadership was also found to have a positive impact on performance but this seemed to be when overall team confidence was lower. And as Brendon Burchard says in his 2017 book, High Performance Habits, “consistency in receiving feedback is the hallmark of consistent growth”.
- Come from a supportive place. Kim Scott, the author of Radical Candor, in an interview with Kevin Kruse, says there are two elements to great feedback. The first is you need to care personally. The second is the willingness to challenge directly. Getting the balance right between support and challenge is crucial – a point that Anna Rasmussen makes in a commentary piece for People Management.
I have a tool to help you get that balance which I teach with the managers I work with. You can download this tool FOR FREE HERE.
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